Cephalexin belongs to a class of antibiotics called cephalosporins. Its action prevents bacteria cell wall synthesis whereby the bacteria are killed. The antibiotic activity against wide bacterial strains
Cephalexin used for combating infections caused by bacteria sensitive to the drug. The drug is used most often to fight infection of the urinary tract and respiratory tract. It is a semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic, belongs to the first generation of these antibiotics. Cephalexin is intended for oral use. It works by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, which prevents the multiplication of bacterial cells. Due to the chemical structure is considered to be cephalexin is beta-lactam antibiotics, whose common feature is the presence in the molecule of the beta-lactam ring. This structure is sensitive to the action of enzymes, so-called. beta-lactamases produced by some bacteria. Beta-lactamase present in bacterial cells, and may cause degradation and inactivation of the antibiotic particles are one of the causes of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Cephalexin, like other first generation cephalosporins has a relatively low resistance to beta-lactamases. Used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary and soft tissue.
Some diseases and other circumstances may contraindicate the use or indication for dosage adjustment. In some situations it may be necessary to carry out specific examinations. Before using the product is essential to consult your doctor and tell him if you have ever occurred in hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins, penicillins, or other drugs or allergens. Very rarely, the drug may cause severe hypersensitivity reaction. This risk is increased in people who are allergic to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics (possible cross allergic reaction to cephalosporins), and in people who are allergic to many different substances. Severe hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis and angioedema obstruct breathing) can be life-threatening. In the case of their occurrence is needed hospitalization and take appropriate treatment (sometimes life-saving procedure). In the case of the first symptoms of hypersensitivity should immediately consult a doctor.
Before using the product you should consult your doctor if you suspect or have been diagnosed with you:
In all these cases, caution is required.
Long-term use of antibiotics can cause excessive growth of treatment-resistant bacteria and fungi. If the period of application of the drug will be new bacterial or fungal infections should immediately consult a doctor.
If in the course of treatment or after diarrhea, do not treat it yourself, but consult your doctor. There is a risk of pseudomembranous colitis, sometimes severe. His clinical symptoms are caused by Clostridium difficile rod, which can proliferate under abnormal conditions, the normal bacterial flora in the intestines. Never use drugs that inhibit peristalsis.
In laboratory tests, the drug can cause a false positive Coombs test result (also in newborns of mothers who were treated with cephalosporins).
Cephalexin should not be applied to people who are allergic to penicillin and cephalosporins. The expected effect of treatment may change if the antibiotic used in combination with other medicines.
So far, there were no effects on the ability to drive and use machines / equipment.
The drug is in the form of capsules. It is intended for oral use. Follow the administrationaccording to the doctor instructions.
Do not exceed the recommended dose because it does not increase the efficacy of the drug and can harm your health and life.
If you have any questions concerning the drug, consult your physician. Your doctor will choose the dosage individually, depending on the indication, the severity of infection, susceptibility and the patient's condition. In certain specific groups of patients need additional dosage adjustment.
The usual dose is 1-4 g per day in divided doses. In the case of moderate uncomplicated urinary tract infections, tonsillitis, and infections of the skin and soft tissue generally 250 mg every 6 hours or 500 mg every 12 hours. In severe infections, your doctor may increase the dose.
The usual dose is 25-50 mg per kg of body weight per day in divided doses, usually every 12 hours. In severe infections, your doctor may double the dose.
It can be used in infants only in cases where the doctor considers it absolutely necessary and the treatment will be carried out under strict medical supervision.
For drug in the form of granules for oral suspension dose is generally 250-500 mg (1-2 teaspoons regular) per 10 kg of body weight per day in divided doses. On a regular teaspoon is selected level of 2.5 ml (corresponding to 125 mg of cephalexin) and level 5 ml (corresponding to 250 mg of cephalexin).
Middle ear inflammation: 75-100 mg per kg body weight in four divided doses.
In patients with renal impairment doctor will prescribe the dose depending on the degree of renal impairment and the severity of the infection. Your doctor may recommend lengthening the interval between doses or dose reduction.
Oral use. It can be taken with or without food. Treatment should generally continue for 2-3 days after symptoms have subsided. In the case of streptococcal infections antibiotic should be taken for at least 10 days.
There was no any harmful effects on the fetus. The drug is excreted into breast milk. Please consult your doctor before antibiotic treatment during lactation.
In pregnant women, the drug can be used only when the physician is absolutely necessary. Before using this medicine while breast-feeding consult your doctor, who will evaluate the benefit-risk ratio in your case and decide whether you can use this medicine. Cephalexin is excreted in breast milk.
Like any other medicine, Cephalexin may cause side effects, although they do not occur in all patients using this drug. Remember that the expected benefits of the drug are usually larger than the damage resulting from the emergence of side effects.
You may experience the following side effects: nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, transient hepatitis and jaundice, a slight increase in liver enzymes (AST, ALT), eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia (low levels of neutrophils or neutrophils), hemolytic anemia, fever, dizziness, headache, hallucinations, interstitial nephritis, candidiasis (thrush) genital inflammation of the vagina, anal itching, hypersensitivity reactions (rash, pruritus, urticaria).
The rare but potentially serious adverse reactions include anaphylactic-type hypersensitivity reactions: Angioedema (possible swelling of the lips, tongue, throat obstruct breathing), and severe skin reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic necrosis necrolysis). If you experience the first symptoms of any of these hypersensitivity reactions should immediately consult a doctor.
The advantages of this drug is a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, including aerobic and anaerobic pathogens, stability to the action of β- lactamases of staphylococci, enterobacteria and some anaerobes (fuzobakterii, Bacteroides, prevotell) . However, amoxicillin/clavulanate inactive against P.aeruginosa. In the case of microbiologically confirmed Pseudomonas etiology is necessary to use local (3 % acetic acid, ciprofloxacin) and systemic medications (azlocillin, piperacillin, ticarcillin, ceftazidime, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin). All of these AMPs is desirable to use in combination with aminoglycosides (netilmicin, amikacin). Drugs used in large doses, duration of therapy should be 2 weeks (minimum) to 6 weeks (except aminoglycosides, which impose no more than 7-14 days).
Cephalexin advantage is that it has not resistant those microorganisms that have developed immunity to the antimicrobial penicillin. Due to this, cephalexin used successfully in the case of protracted tracheitis, bronchitis, sore throats and tonsillitis. A significant drawback of cephalexin - his inability to overcome brain barrier and penetrate the lining of the brain. This eliminates the possibility of its use in the treatment of generalized sepsis, encephalitis and meningitis of any etiology.